In-Text Citations vs. Bibliographies

When you are writing a research paper, there are multiple forms that citations can take. For instance, in the body of your paper, you will use in-text citations for the purpose of alerting your reader that you are about to use an idea that came from a source outside of your own research. See the example below from the Penn State University Libraries (done in APA style) to see how an in-text citation might appear.

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A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.

A bibliography is a list of resources that go at the end of your paper. Normally this list will be alphabetized by the author's last name. There are lots of ways of referring to bibliographies; some people call them “works cited lists,” “references,” or something else. They are all essentially the same thing.

See below for an example of a bibliography created using APA style.

Barnes, J. (2016). Student-sole-parents and the academic library. New Zealand Library & Information Management Journal, 56(1), 46-51.

Brown, R., & Amankwaa, A. (2007). College females as mothers: Balancing the roles of student and motherhood. BNE Journal, 18(1), 25-29.

Demeules, J., & Hamer, B. (2013). Retaining young student parents: A growing challenge. About Campus, 22-25.

Godfrey, I., Rutledge, L., Mowdood, A., Reed, J., Bigler, S., & Soehner, C. (2017). Supporting student retention and success: Including family areas in an academic library. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 17(2), 375-388.

Keyes, K. (2017). Welcoming spaces: Supporting parenting students at the academic library. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 43(4), 319-328. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2017.06.001
Petit, J. (2014). A family-friendly study room for student-parents and their children at Portland State University Library. Oregon Library Association: Interchange, 20(1), 36-39.

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